Before the advent of mechanized paper mills and wood sulfite pulps, people made paper from old clothing. Historically, the rags people used for papermaking were linen, but fabric made from cotton and hemp also make high-quality paper. You can find rag paper made from cotton and linen at office supply stores, but you can also make your own. Making paper is a time-consuming and messy process, but your efforts will yield sheets of paper unlike anything you can find in a store.
Things You’ll Need
Cotton, linen or hemp fabric
Hollander beater or industrial strength blender
Plastic tub with high sides
Shallow plastic tub
Mould and deckle (wooden supports with a mesh screen stretched across the top and a removable wooden frame)
Industrial polyester felt sheets
Weights (heavy books, doorstops, etc.)
Sheets of cotton blotter
Cut the fabric into squares that measure approximately 1 inch, place the cut fabric into your paint bucket and fill it with enough water to cover the fabric scraps.
Allow the scraps to soak for at least 24 hours; saturating the fibers with water will make them break down faster during the pulp-making process.
Find the zero point of the Hollander beater, which is a piece of papermaking equipment with a moat-like tub and a rotating cylinder (beater roll) with macerating blades that break fabric into pulp. Open the beater’s top to reveal the beater roll. Move the roll back and forth with your hand as you turn the crank on the side of the beater counterclockwise. When the beater roll starts scraping against the metal plate that rests beneath it, stop turning the crank and set the counter
When in a survivalist situation, you have to think of everything you need to sustain yourself. Most people focus on water, food and medical supplies, but there are other necessities of life that are helpful to know how to make. Toilet paper is a resource that you may have but you will eventually run out. Another reason to make your own paper is to be eco-friendly and to save trees – and it could also be a fun Boy or Girl Scout project.
Add essential oils to the pulp for a scented paper. (Image: Comstock/Stockbyte/Getty Images)
Things You’ll Need
8 large sheets newspaper, 1/2-pound copy paper or non-glossy magazine pages
Bucket or tub
Heating source (stovetop, open fire, propane burner)
Spoon or ladle
2 large bath towels
Soak the paper in a bucket or a tub of water. This will help remove the ink from the paper. Remove the paper after the ink appears to be 75 percent gone.
Place the paper in a large pot with a couple of handfuls of leaves and grass. This will help the paper fibers remain together. Fill the pot with water so the paper is covered completely. Place the paper on a heating element and let simmer for one hour. Do not boil at first so the dry materials may absorb the water.
Raise the temperature on the heating element and bring the water to a boil. Let the pot boil for 30 minutes. Add more water, if necessary. Remove any foam with a spoon or ladle. The paper will turn into a pulp during this process.
Remove from the heating element. Pour or ladle out as much water as possible without disturbing the pulp. Wait for the water and pulp to cool before
Whether you only have a window sill with a pot plant on, a small city terrace, a playing field or several acres, you can always work with the magic of your garden. I think the kitchen extends into the garden anyway, so a Kitchen Witch will often be found pottering around in amongst the plants.
Being in regular contact with your garden and what you grow, even with your house plants or a few pots of herbs, can help you to connect with the spirit of nature and recognise the subtleties of the changing of the seasons and your garden can also provide you with food and magical ingredients.
Magical gardening does take time, focus and attention. You can’t just plant something and leave it in the hope that several months later it will have grown, flourished and be covered in fruit or flowers (OK on the odd occasion it does happen but not often!).
My gardening memories date back to my childhood. My dad is and always was a keen gardener, organic before it was fashionable to be so. He has always had an allotment and a greenhouse which provide a bounty of wonderful fruit and vegetables. Apparently even as a toddler I would disappear down the garden with him and come back covered in mud.
In my early teens I experienced food production on a large scale as I lived on a farm for a few years. Then in my late teens I had the opportunity of working for a specialist glasshouse company. Both of those life events added to my love of the garden, food and nature’s bounty.
Once I owned by own house, the garden became key. It is my sanctuary, a peaceful place to escape to and a space in which to create magic.
For the past twenty or so years we have lived in the same house; it is on the edge of a large city and only has a small walled garden, but it is ours and we have packed it full of as many plants, flowers and herbs as we can cram into it. We even have a very small (i.e. teeny tiny) grow house just big enough to over winter a few pots and grow some seeds.
Even on my busy days I try to step out into the garden, if only just for a few minutes to relax and connect with Mother Earth.
Your garden, whatever size it is, opens up a whole new world of magic for you to delve in to. Warning: Gardening is addictive and will improve your health, spirit and mental wellbeing.
Not only is a garden your direct line to a natural source of energy, it can also provide you with a whole shopping trolley full of free magical and often edible ingredients. Whether it is in the form of fruit and vegetables or flowers, petals and seeds.
Let’s open the magical box
You may imagine you need to have a beautiful picture box garden laid out in front of a thatched cottage to have a witch’s garden but really that isn’t the case. You can style the garden in any way that suits your taste, size of garden and your budget.
Many hours and much money can be spent in garden centres and whilst they are brilliant sources for plant and design inspiration you can spend more money than you need to. Oh…and a lot of them have a café…with cake.Plant nurseries often tend to be cheaper than garden centres but ask around. Lots of family and friends will probably be willing to share cuttings and seeds with you. And once your garden has a few plants in you can propagate more from those you already have.
Gardening does take time and effort. You will need to dig, plant, weed, dead
Herb container gardens are popular for many reasons. Even if you have miles of property and gardens galore, it’s so convenient to be able to step out your door and pick a handful of fresh herbs from a beautiful container garden, any time of the day or night. Maintenance is also more convenient with containers, and there are fewer problems with weeds and critters getting into your crop.
You can grow almost any herb in a container, and most are very easy. However, herbs can have different water requirements, and some are more finicky than others, so be sure to put herbs with similar needs in the same pot.
Planning Your Herb Container
You can grow as many types of herbs in one container as you want, as long as you make sure that all the herbs in a single pot share the same sun, water, and soil preferences. For example, rosemary likes it hot and dry, while parsley needs steady moisture. Therefore, they don’t work well together in the same pot.
Don’t forget that herbs can also serve as decorative elements in any container garden, adding texture and scent when mixed with annuals or perennials. Again, just be sure to pair them with plants that have the same requirements for light and water.
Choosing a Container for Your Herbs
You can use almost anything for an herb container as long as it provides for good drainage. Most herbs don’t have large root systems, so you can get away with smaller containers. This is especially true of the herbs that don’t mind drying out between waterings. However, the smaller the container, the less soil there is, which means you have a smaller margin of error when it comes to watering.
Some herbs thrive in self-watering containers because they like a constant level of moisture. Plants such as chives, parsley, marjoram, and mint would be particularly good candidates for growing in self-watering pots. Other herbs, such as oregano, thyme, rosemary, and basil, prefer to dry out between watering so wouldn’t be good candidates for self-watering containers.
Planting and Caring for Your Herbs
Help your herbs thrive with the right soil, sun, and feeding. Use high-quality potting soil because most herbs need good drainage. Also, make sure that your container has drainage holes so you don’t drown your herbs.
Most herbs need full sun for at least six hours a day. That said, containers can really bake on a hot day, so if you live somewhere where temperatures soar, your herb containers may need to be shaded during the hottest part of the day.
Be careful not to over-fertilize your herbs. Most don’t like it and some herbs will simply die if they are fussed with and overfed. Some herbs such as thyme and oregano thrive on neglect and won’t be as tasty if they are given too much attention, water, or food.
Continue to 5 of 5 below.
Harvesting Your Herbs
The rule of thumb for harvesting herbs is that the more you pick, the more you’ll get. Also, you want to pinch back most herbs to make them bushier and well-formed. But
Learn the reasons to change over to a vegetarian diet, and start eating less meat today—or none at all!
Why are people drawn to vegetarianism? Some just want to live longer, healthier lives. Others have made the switch to preserve Earth’’s natural resources or from a love of animals and an ethical opposition to eating them.
Thanks to an abundance of scientific research that demonstrates the health and environmental benefits of a plant-based diet, even the federal government recommends that we consume most of our calories from grain products, vegetables and fruits.
And no wonder: An estimated 70 percent of all diseases, including one-third of all cancers, are related to diet. A vegetarian diet reduces the risk for chronic degenerative diseases such as obesity, coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and certain types of cancer including colon, breast, prostate, stomach, lung and esophageal cancer.
Why go vegetarian? Chew on these reasons:
You’ll ward off disease.
Vegetarian diets are more healthful than the average American diet, particularly in preventing, treating or reversing heart disease and reducing the risk of cancer. A low-fat vegetarian diet is the single most effective way to stop the progression of coronary artery disease or prevent it entirely. Cardiovascular disease kills 1 million Americans annually and is the leading cause of death in the United States.
But the mortality rate for cardiovascular disease is lower in vegetarians than in nonvegetarians, says Joel Fuhrman, MD, author of Eat to Live: The Revolutionary Formula for Fast and Sustained Weight Loss. A vegetarian diet is inherently healthful because vegetarians consume less animal fat and cholesterol (vegans consume no animal fat or cholesterol) and instead consume more fiber and more antioxidant-rich produce——another great reason to listen to Mom and eat your veggies!
You’ll keep your weight down.
The standard American diet—high in saturated fats and processed foods and low in plant-based foods and complex carbohydrates——is making us fat and killing us slowly. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and a division of the CDC, the National Center for Health Statistics, 64 percent of adults and 15 percent of children aged 6 to 19 are overweight and are at risk of weight-related ailments including heart disease, stroke and diabetes.
A study conducted from 1986 to 1992 by Dean Ornish, MD, president and director of the Preventive Medicine Research Institute in Sausalito, California, found that overweight people who followed a low-fat, vegetarian diet lost an average of 24 pounds in the first year and kept off that weight 5 years later. They lost the weight without counting calories or carbs and without measuring portions or feeling hungry.
You’ll live longer.
If you switch from the standard American diet to a vegetarian diet, you can add about 13 healthy years to your life, says Michael F. Roizen, MD, author of The RealAge Diet: Make Yourself Younger with What You Eat. “People who consume saturated, four-legged fat have a shorter life span and more disability at the end of their lives. Animal products clog your arteries, zap your energy and slow down your immune system. Meat eaters also experience accelerated cognitive and sexual dysfunction at a younger age.”
Want more proof of longevity?
Residents of Okinawa, Japan, have the longest life expectancy of any Japanese and likely the longest life expectancy of anyone in the world, according to a 30-year study of more than 600 Okinawan centenarians. Their secret: a low-calorie diet of unrefined complex carbohydrates, fiber-rich fruits and vegetables, and soy.
You’ll build strong bones.
When there isn’t enough calcium in the bloodstream, our bodies will leach it from existing bone. The metabolic result is that our skeletons will become porous and lose strength over time. Most health care practitioners recommend that we increase our intake of calcium the way nature intended——through foods. Foods also supply other nutrients such as phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D that are necessary for the body to absorb and use calcium.
People who are mildly lactose-intolerant can often enjoy small amounts of dairy products such as yogurt, cheese and lactose-free milk. But if you avoid dairy altogether, you can still get a healthful dose of calcium from dry beans, tofu, soymilk and dark green vegetables such as broccoli, kale, collards and turnip greens.
You’ll reduce your risk of food-borne illnesses.
The CDC reports that food-borne illnesses of all kinds account for 76 million illnesses a year, resulting in 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths in the United States. According to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), foods rich in protein such as meat, poultry, fish and seafood are frequently involved in food-borne illness outbreaks.
You’ll ease the symptoms of menopause.
Many foods contain nutrients beneficial to perimenopausal and menopausal women. Certain foods are rich in phytoestrogens, the plant-based chemical compounds that mimic the behavior of estrogen. Since phytoestrogens can increase and decrease estrogen and progesterone levels, maintaining a balance of them in your diet helps ensure a more comfortable passage through menopause. Soy is by far the most abundant natural source of phytoestrogens, but these